Evidence based healthcare (EBH) reports

The Research unit produces a range of evidence based healthcare (EBH) reports for ACC:

Evidence based reviews

These reports assess the effectiveness and safety of health interventions. They are developed according to a robust methodology similar to that used by the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (external website) and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (external website). This includes systematic searches of the literature, critical appraisal of existing research evidence and peer review by clinical experts.

Brief reports

These reports summarise what we know about the effectiveness and safety of health interventions. They often focus on interventions for which published research is limited.

Purchasing guidance

Once the Research unit has assessed an intervention’s effectiveness and safety, it works with ACC’s Purchasing Guidance Advisory Group to develop recommendations on funding. The process ACC goes through in deciding whether to fund a particular intervention is documented in considered judgement forms (external website) based on those developed by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (external website).

Clinical practice guidelines

Guidelines help health professionals, patients and funding organisations make informed decisions about health care. Guideline development is a systematic process that involves appraising evidence, consulting clinical experts and working with multidisciplinary advisory groups. ACC often contracts the process out to external groups who specialise in guideline development.

Other reports

These look beyond the effectiveness of specific treatment or rehabilitation interventions to focus on wider aspects of injury – aspects such as prevention, causation and the long term effects of injury.

See below for a list of EBH reports completed since January 2008, plus clinical practice guidelines published since 2004. The reports are listed by keyword and most are in portable document format (PDF).

ACC’s current clinical practice guidelines are also listed on the clinical practice guidelines page.

If you have any questions about these reports, or you require access to our older reports, please email us at: research@acc.co.nz

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Acupuncture

Effectiveness of acupuncture in selected mental health conditions – brief report [2014] (PDF 113KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 455KB).

Efficacy of acupuncture in the management of musculoskeletal pain - pragmatic evidence based review [2011] (PDF 563KB).

Alcohol-related injury

Alcohol-related injury: an evidence-based literature review [2012] (PDF 3.3MB)

Arm & hand disorders

Work-related risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 607KB)

Work-related risk factors for lateral epicondylitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 569KB)

Work-related risk factors for tenosynovitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 494KB)

Distal upper limb: guidelines for management of some common musculoskeletal disorders (2009):

Guideline summary [ACC5123] (PDF 2.7MB)

Concise version [ACC5124] (PDF 7.3MB)

Comprehensive version (PDF 3.6MB).

The guidelines advise on the clinical management of a range of disorders affecting the forearm and hand, including carpal tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis and de Quervain’s disease.

Printed copies of the summary version (with the concise version on CD inserted) can be ordered from the publications (clinical guidelines) page. The comprehensive version is only available as a PDF.

Autologous blood injections

Autologous blood injections for musculoskeletal disorders – evidence based report [2014] (PDF 1.2MB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 224KB)

B

Back pain

Efficacy and safety of interspinous spacer devices – evidence update [2016] (PDF 318KB)

Interspinous spacers – update summary [2012] (PDF 41KB).

Interspinous spacers – purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 45KB).

Intervertebral disc replacement – cervical total disc replacement purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 88KB) and lumbar total disc replacement purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 97KB).

New Zealand acute low back pain guide, incorporating the guide to assessing psychosocial yellow flags in acute low back pain [ACC1038] – clinical practice guideline [2004] (PDF 418KB). – please be aware that, due to the age of this guideline, some sections may have been superseded by more recent evidence.

Biological mesh

Biological mesh for abdominal wall hernia repair – evidence based report [2013] (PDF 248KB) and purchasing guidance [2013] (PDF 49KB)

Brain injury

Optometric vision therapy in rehabilitation of cognitive dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 284KB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 128KB).

TBI (traumatic brain injury) reviews:
In 2011 and 2012, Research produced a series of nine best evidence literature reviews to support ACC’s TBI strategy. The reviews covered:

Acute care of people with a head injury (PDF 214KB)

In-patient rehabilitation for TBI (PDF 86KB)

Employment participation (PDF 70KB)

Community integration (PDF 68KB)

Substance abuse in TBI patients (PDF 51KB)

Depression in TBI patients (PDF 68KB)

Challenging behaviour and TBI (PDF 57KB)

Impact of ageing on individuals with TBI (PDF 106KB)

Safe transfer for people with a head injury (PDF 112KB).

A summary document (PDF 49KB) presenting the key findings of the nine reviews is also available.

Update on the effectiveness of music therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury – brief report [2011] (PDF 159KB) and purchasing guidance [2011] (PDF 42KB).

Hart walker – brief report [2010] (PDF 130KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 46KB).

Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation for the management of footdrop after stroke – brief report [2009] (PDF 73KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 53KB).

Traumatic brain injury: diagnosis, acute management and rehabilitation – guideline summary [ACC2610] [2007] (PDF 1.2MB).

Traumatic brain injury: diagnosis, acute management and rehabilitation [ACC2404] – clinical practice guideline [2006] (PDF 2.5MB).

This guideline was developed for ACC by the New Zealand Guidelines Group (external website). Additional resources are available from the NZGG website.

Burns

The ReCell system: clinical application & efficacy of use – brief report [2012] (PDF 65KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 39KB).

Microskin – brief report [2009] (PDF 79KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 43KB).

Management of burns and scalds in primary care [ACC4046] – clinical practice guideline [2007] (PDF 2.1MB).

Management of burns and scalds in primary care: guideline summary [ACC4047] – summary of the clinical practice guideline [2007] (PDF 928KB).

C

Causation & risk factors

Causation and risk factors of plantar fasciitis – evidence based review [2016] (PDF 2.4MB).

Causation and risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 1.9MB).

Work-related risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 607KB).

Work-related risk factors for lateral epicondylitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 569KB).

Work-related risk factors for rotator cuff syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 1.4MB).

Work-related risk factors for tenosynovitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 494KB).

Causation of knee pathologies/injuries – causation review (Part A) [2013] (PDF 284KB).

Causation of knee pathologies/injuries – causation review (Part B) [2013] (PDF 241KB).

Popliteal cysts or Baker’s cysts of the knee – causation review [2011] (PDF 180KB).

Meniscal cysts – causation review [2010] (PDF 141KB).

Meniscal tears – causation review [2010] (PDF 394KB).

Cerebral palsy

Conductive education in children with cerebral palsy – evidence update [2016] (PDF 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2016] (479KB)

Update on the effectiveness of music therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury – brief report [2011] (PDF 159KB) and purchasing guidance [2011] (PDF 42KB).

Hart walker – brief report [2010] (PDF 130KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 46KB).

Clinical practice guidelines see Guidelines page.

Chronic pain see Pain.

D

Dental restoration

ACC dental implant guidelines [ACC 2458] revised [2010] (PDF 159KB).

Dental implants: patient selection factors – evidence based review [2009] (PDF 609KB).

Guidelines for restoration of fractured anterior teeth [ACC5466] [2010] (PDF 989KB).

Optimum life-time management of coronal fractures in anterior teeth: a review of crowns, veneers, composite resin restorations and intra-coronal bleaching – evidence based review [2008] (PDF 2.6MB).

Devices, equipment & orthotics

Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for promoting fracture healing – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 241KB).

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) for musculoskeletal pain – evidence based review [2014] (PDF 788KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 196KB).

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices in the management of lower limb lymphoedema – evidence based review [2014] (PDF 346KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 125KB).

Effectiveness of FES bikes for people with spinal cord injury – rapid review [2012] (PDF 221KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 64KB).

Hart walker – brief report [2010] (PDF 130KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 46KB).

Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation for the management of footdrop after stroke – brief report [2009] (PDF 73KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 53KB).

Key grip orthosis – brief report [2009] (PDF 70KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 46KB).

Drug therapy

A review of pemetrexed in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: the effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, impact on quality of life and identification of possible alternative cost effective pharmaceutical therapies – brief report [2009] (DOC 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 45KB).

E

Erectile dysfunction

Ejaculatory efficacy of penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injuries – technology assessment [2012] (PDF 299KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 37KB).

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in treatment of selected musculoskeletal conditions (updated 2008):

Main report (PDF 138KB)

Appendix 1, evidence tables (DOC 330KB)

Appendix 2, evidence grading (PDF 32KB)

Appendix 3, comparison table (PDF 47KB)

Purchasing guidance (PDF 57KB).

Note: the 2008 ESWT review makes recommendations on the use of ESWT in the treatment of a range of conditions including tendinopathies and fracture healing. It updates a previous review carried out in 2004 which made recommendations on the use of ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis only.

F

Fracture healing

Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for promoting fracture healing – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 692KB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 241KB).

Functional electrical stimulation (FES)

Effectiveness of FES bikes for people with spinal cord injury – rapid review [2012] (PDF 221KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 64KB).

Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation for the management of footdrop after stroke – brief report [2009] (PDF 73KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 53KB).

G

Guidelines see Guidelines page.

H

Hart walker

Hart walker – brief report [2010] (PDF 130KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 46KB).

Hearing loss

ACC guidelines (2010) for diagnosing occupational noise-induced hearing loss are available from the hearing loss resources section.

I

Injury prevention

Review of evidence for primary prevention of child abuse and neglect (including child sexual abuse) [2016] (PDF 1.4MB)

My home is my marae – Kaupapa Māori evaluation: community report [2015] (PDF 5.3MB) – ‘My home is my marae’ is a falls prevention initiative designed to empower Māori communities through sharing knowledge and skills about home safety. It was trialled over an 18 month period in 2013 – 2014 across South Auckland and Northland regions. This report presents an ACC-commissioned evaluation of the initiative carried out using a kaupapa Māori theory-based approach.

Alcohol-related injury: an evidence-based literature review [2012] (PDF 3.2MB)

Interspinous spacers

Efficacy and safety of interspinous spacer devices – evidence update [2016] (PDF 318KB)

Interspinous spacers – update summary [2012] (PDF 41KB).

Interspinous spacers – purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 45KB).

Interventional pain management

Interventional pain management (IPM) guidance – ACC has developed web based clinical guidance on a wide range of interventions for managing persistent pain. The guidance was launched in 2005 and recommendations on selected interventions were updated in 2011-2017. Further updates on selected steroid, anaesthetic and Botox injections are in progress.

Recommendations on the following steroid injections were updated in 2017.

Spinal steroid injections:

Effectiveness of injection of steroid with or without local anaesthetic to the cervical lateral atlanto-axial joint – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 1.1MB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 341KB)

Effectiveness of intra-articular injections of steroid to the lumbar zygapophyseal (facet) and sacroiliac joints – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 2.4MB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 1.4MB)

Effectiveness of lumbar epidural injection of steroid with or without local anaesthetic – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 5.9MB)

Effectiveness of epidural steroid injections via the interlaminar route – purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 380KB)

Effectiveness of lumbar epidural injection of steroid via a transforaminal approach – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 3.9MB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 353KB)

Injection of steroid via the caudal sacral route – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 972KB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 258KB).

Upper limb steroid injections:

Effectiveness of injection of steroid to the elbow (medial or lateral epicondyles) as a form of interventional pain management – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 7.0MB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 619KB)

Effectiveness of local steroid injection to the wrist for carpal tunnel syndrome – systematic review of the literature [2016] (PDF 4.0MB) and purchasing guidance [2017] (PDF 274KB)

The recommendations on diagnostic blocks, radiofrequency neurotomy, bisphosphonate infusions and hyaluronic acid knee injections were updated in 2015-2016:

Hyaluronic acid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee – evidence scan [2016] (PDF 819KB)

Efficacy of pamidronate infusions for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) – evidence based review [2016] (PDF 1.3MB) and purchasing guidance [2016] (PDF 384KB)

Third occipital nerve block – evidence based review [2016] (PDF 1.1MB) and purchasing guidance [2016] (PDF 352KB)

Diagnostic blocks of the cervical and lumbar medial branches – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 753KB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 244KB)

Radiofrequency neurotomy of the cervical and lumbar medial branches – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 548KB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 175KB).

The recommendations on ketamine infusion were updated in 2014:

Ketamine infusion for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) – brief report [2014] (PDF 351KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 225KB).

The recommendations on prolotherapy injections were updated in 2013:

Prolotherapy – evidence based review [2013] (PDF 289KB) and purchasing guidance [2013] (PDF 55KB).

Recommendations on ketamine and lignocaine infusions and Botox injections were developed and/or updated in 2011:

New & updated recommendations for selected IPM procedures [2011] (PDF 71KB).

The recommendations on spinal cord stimulation were updated in 2009 and ACC released further guidance in 2012 – see Spinal cord stimulation.

See also:

A summary [ACC2350] of the key recommendations of the original IPM guidance [2006] (PDF 752KB)

The full IPM guidance [2005].

Intervertebral disc replacement

Intervertebral disc replacement – cervical total disc replacement purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 88KB) and lumbar total disc replacement purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 97KB).

K

Key grip orthosis

Key grip orthosis – brief report [2009] (PDF 70KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 46KB).

Knee injuries

Allograft for use in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction – evidence based review [2016] (1.8MB) and purchasing guidance [2016] (PDF 508KB)

Hyaluronic acid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee – evidence scan [2016] (PDF 819KB)

Causation of knee pathologies/injuries – causation review (Part A) [2013] (PDF 284KB).

Causation of knee pathologies/injuries – causation review (Part B) [2013] (PDF 241KB).

Popliteal cysts or Baker’s cysts of the knee – causation review [2011] (PDF 180KB).

Meniscal cysts – causation review [2010] (PDF 141KB).

Meniscal tears – causation review [2010] (PDF 394KB).

Imaging guideline for the diagnosis of soft tissue knee injuries: internal derangements [ACC5468] – update to the clinical practice guideline [2010] (PDF 77KB).

This update to the 2003 knee guideline (see below) focuses on the use of imaging in the diagnosis of knee injuries. Following a review of the 2003 guideline, ACC updated its recommendations to provide more detailed guidance on when imaging is appropriate and necessary.

The diagnosis and management of soft tissue knee injuries: internal derangements [ACC1331] – clinical practice guideline [2003] (PDF 2.9MB).

Please be aware that, due to the age of this guideline, some sections may have been superseded by more recent evidence.

The diagnosis and management of soft tissue knee injuries: internal derangements: key messages [ACC1332] – summary of the clinical practice guideline [2003] (PDF 236KB).

L

Low intensity pulsed ultrasound

Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for promoting fracture healing – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 241KB).

Low level laser therapy

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) for musculoskeletal pain – evidence based review [2014] (PDF 788KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 196KB).

M

Microskin

Microskin – brief report [2009] (PDF 79KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 43KB).

Music therapy

Update on the effectiveness of music therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury – brief report [2011] (PDF 159KB) and purchasing guidance [2011] (PDF 42KB).

O

Occupational illness

Work-related risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 607KB)

Work-related risk factors for lateral epicondylitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 569KB)

Work-related risk factors for rotator cuff syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 1.4MB)

Work-related risk factors for tenosynovitis – brief report [2014] (PDF 494KB)

Farmers’ mental health: review of the literature [2014] (PDF 1.2MB) and presentation [2014] (PDF 481KB).

ACC guidelines (2010) for diagnosing occupational noise-induced hearing loss are available from the hearing loss resources section.

The role of employers in return to work of people with musculoskeletal pain disorders – evidence based review [2010] (PDF 364KB).

A review of pemetrexed in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: the effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, impact on quality of life and identification of possible alternative cost effective pharmaceutical therapies – brief report [2009] (DOC 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 44KB).

Optometric vision therapy

Optometric vision therapy in rehabilitation of cognitive dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury – evidence based review [2015] (PDF 226KB) and purchasing guidance [2015] (PDF 100KB).

P

Pain – see also Back pain and Interventional pain management

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) for musculoskeletal pain – evidence based review [2014] (PDF 788KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 196KB).

Guidelines for neuromodulation treatment with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) for pain management – clinical guidelines [2012] (PDF 303KB)

Effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain – evidence based review [2009] (PDF 268KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 44KB).

Persistent pain assessment instruments: a compendium (2008) – This is a handbook of instruments to assess persistent pain. The instruments cover the following areas: pain assessment; psychological instruments; functional assessment; and general health/quality of life.

Pemetrexed

A review of pemetrexed in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma: the effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, impact on quality of life and identification of possible alternative cost effective pharmaceutical therapies – brief report [2009] (DOC 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 45KB).

Platelet-rich plasma

Platelet-rich plasma – Brief report [2012] (PDF 130KB).

Pressure ulcers

Prognostic pathways on secondary disability and aging in people who have experienced a spinal cord injury: pressure ulcers [preliminary report] – evidence based review [2009] (PDF 579KB).

Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured clients: a guide for practitioners – summary of the evidence based review [2009] (PDF 155KB).

Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy – evidence based review [2013] (PDF 289KB) and purchasing guidance [2013] (PDF 55KB).

Pyrocarbon joint resurfacing

Pyrocarbon joint resurfacing of the shoulder – brief report [2013] (PDF 78KB) and purchasing guidance [2013] (PDF 61KB).

R

ReCell autologous skin graft system

The ReCell system: clinical application & efficacy of use – brief report [2012] (PDF 65KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 39KB).

Rehabilitation, physical

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices in the management of lower limb lymphoedema – evidence based review [2014] (PDF 346KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 125KB).

Intensive exercise programmes for spinal cord-injured individuals – evidence based review (2008, PDF 356KB) and purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 139KB).

Whole body vibration (WBV) training – evidence based review [2008] (PDF 96KB) and purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 129KB).

Rehabilitation, social & vocational

Conductive education in children with cerebral palsy – evidence update [2016] (PDF 1.6MB) and purchasing guidance [2016] (479KB)

Effectiveness of acupuncture in selected mental health conditions – brief report [2014] (PDF 113KB) and purchasing guidance [2014] (PDF 455KB).

Update on the effectiveness of music therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury – brief report [2011] (PDF 159KB) and purchasing guidance [2011] (PDF 42KB).

The role of employers in return to work of people with musculoskeletal pain disorders – evidence based review [2010] (PDF 364KB).

Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – brief report [2008] (PDF 51KB).

S

Scar management

The ReCell system: clinical application & efficacy of use – brief report [2012] (PDF 65KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 39KB).

Microskin – brief report [2009] (PDF 79KB) and purchasing guidance [2010] (PDF 43KB).

Sexual abuse

Review of evidence for primary prevention of child abuse and neglect (including child sexual abuse) [2016] (PDF 1.4MB)

Associations of childhood sexual abuse and mental health conditions – research summary [2016] (PDF 791KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and alcohol use disorder – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 756KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and anxiety disorders – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 778KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and bipolar disorder – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 477KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 774KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and depressive disorders – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 875KB)

Childhood sexual abuse and trauma-related responses – Evidence based report [2016] (PDF 629KB)

Childhood adversity and psychotic disorders – evidence based report [2014] (PDF 550KB)

Sexual abuse and mental injury: practice guidelines for Aotearoa New Zealand [ACC4451] – clinical practice guideline [2008] (PDF 1.1MB).

Shoulder injuries

Work-related risk factors for rotator cuff syndrome – brief report [2014] (PDF 1.4MB)

The effects of subacromial corticosteroid injections on rotator cuff tendons – evidence based report [2014] (PDF 432KB).

Pyrocarbon joint resurfacing of the shoulder – brief report [2013] (PDF 78KB) and purchasing guidance [2013] (PDF 61KB).

Shoulder imaging – review of existing guidelines – brief report [2011] (PDF 128KB).

Referral guideline for imaging in patients presenting with shoulder pain [ACC6289] [2011] (PDF 209KB).

This update to the 2004 shoulder guideline (see below) focuses on the use of imaging in patients presenting with shoulder pain. Following a review of the 2004 guideline, ACC updated its recommendations to provide more detailed guidance on when imaging is appropriate and necessary.

Restore orthobiologic soft tissue implant for rotator cuff repair – brief report [2009] (PDF 96KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 44KB).

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in treatment of selected musculoskeletal conditions (updated 2008):

Main report (PDF 138KB)

Appendix 1, evidence tables (DOC 330KB)

Appendix 2, evidence grading (PDF 32KB)

Appendix 3, comparison table (PDF 47KB)

Purchasing guidance (PDF 57KB).

Note: the 2008 ESWT review makes recommendations on the use of ESWT in the treatment of a range of conditions including tendinopathies and fracture healing. It updates a previous review carried out in 2004 which made recommendations on the use of ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis only.

The diagnosis and management of soft tissue shoulder injuries and related disorders [ACC1617] – clinical practice guideline [2004] (PDF 1.8MB).

Please be aware that, due to the age of this guideline, some sections may have been superseded by more recent evidence.

The diagnosis and management of soft tissue shoulder injuries and related disorders: key messages [ACC1616] – summary of the clinical practice guideline [2004] (PDF 203KB).

Spinal cord injury

Ejaculatory efficacy of penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injuries – technology assessment [2012] (PDF 299KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 37KB).

Effectiveness of FES bikes for people with spinal cord injury – rapid review [2012] (PDF 221KB) and purchasing guidance [2012] (PDF 64KB).

Key grip orthosis – brief report [2009] (PDF 70KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 46KB).

Prognostic pathways on secondary disability and aging in people who have experienced a spinal cord injury: pressure ulcers [preliminary report] – evidence based review [2009] (PDF 579KB).

Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured clients: a guide for practitioners – summary of the evidence based review [2009] (PDF 155KB).

Intensive exercise programmes for spinal cord-injured individuals – evidence based review [2008] (PDF 356KB) and purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 139KB).

Spinal cord stimulation

Guidelines for neuromodulation treatment with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) for pain management [2012] (PDF 303KB)

Effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain – evidence based review [2009] (PDF 268KB) and purchasing guidance [2009] (PDF 44KB).

Symptom validity

Literature review update [2016] (PDF 356KB)

Literature review [2012] (PDF 209KB)

T

Total disc arthroplasty see Intervertebral disc replacement.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) see Brain injury.

V
Vibration training

Whole body vibration (WBV) training – evidence based review [2008] (PDF 696KB) and purchasing guidance [2008] (PDF 129KB).

W

Work related gradual process risk factors see Occupational illness.

Reviewed: 3 March 2015